نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدة معمارى و شهرسازى، دانشگاه شهید بهشتى

2 استاد دانشکدة معمارى و شهرسازى، دانشگاه شهید بهشتى

چکیده

در پژوهش­های طراحی در سال­های اخیر به سازوکار شناختی طراحان و راه­های دانستن و اندیشیدن آن‌ها توجه شده و در عین حال مطالعات خبرگی طراحی برای بررسی رفتار و اندیشیدن طراحان خبره رونق گرفته است. این مطالعات ضمن آنکه ابعاد واقعی­تری از ماهیت طراحی و مسئله‌هایی که طراحان با آن سروکار دارند را به دست داده، تبعات مثبتی در حوزۀ آموزش طراحی داشته و مدل­های آموزشی به کار گرفته‌شده در کارگاه­های طراحی را واقع­گرایانه­تر و مؤثرتر ساخته است. یکی از راهبردهایی که طراحان، در زمرۀ فعالیت­های تعریف مسئله، در مواجهه با مسئله‌های باز و بدساختار طراحی به کار می­گیرند و با اتکا به آن می‌توانند پیچیدگی­های مسئله را اداره کنند، «قاب‌بندی مسئله» است. در مقالۀ حاضر که بخش اعظم آن مبتنی بر یافته­های پژوهش دکتری نویسندۀ مسئول است، زمینه‌هایی که اهمیت مفهوم قاب‌بندی مسئلۀ طراحی را توجیه می‌کنند، و نیز نقش و جایگاه این مرحلۀ حساس و تعیین­کننده در فرایند طراحی تبیین می‌شود. طراحان در قاب‌بندی مسئله، جنبه­های مهم مسئله را برگزیده و با ایجاد ارتباط میان آن‌ها مسئله­ای تازه­ تعریف می‌کنند و به آن پاسخ می­دهند. سپس با تأمل بر پاسخ خود و بررسی بازخوردهای آن، در صورت نیاز مسئله را دوباره قاب‌بندی می‌کنند. در این میان، «قاب اولیه»ی مسئله، به مثابۀ نخستین بازنمایی ذهنی طراح از مسئله، تشخیص مهم­ترین جنبه­های مسئله در نخستین رویارویی وی با مسئله است و در مقاله حاضر به مثابۀ عنصری بسیار تأثیرگذار بر ادامۀ مسیر فرایند طراحی و برایند آن معرفی می‌شود.   

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Problem Framing: The Designer’s Way of Tackling Design Problems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farhad Shariatrad 1
  • Hamid Nadimi 2

1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University

2 Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University

چکیده [English]

Recent design research has shed light on designers’ thinking and knowledge acquisition mechanisms, design expertise, as well as design education methodologies. ‘Problem Framing’ is an effective strategy designers employ to manage the complexities of open-ended unstructured design problems. Drawing on the findings of studies conducted for the PhD dissertation of one of the authors, this paper explains definitions and the background of problem framing and its role in the critical junction of problem definition. It explains that by framing a design problem, the designer selects important aspects of the design problem; redefines relations between theses aspects; postulates tentative responses to this new problem; reflects on these responses; assesses the feedbacks of such postulations; and reformulates the problem if necessary. Problem framing thus becomes the primary mental representation of the problem for the designer, which influences the subsequent design process.

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