Aspects of Reciprocal Imitation between the Tutor and the Student in Architectural Design Studio Tutorials

Document Type : Original Article


Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Hakim Sabzevari University


The right imitation is a prerequisite for creativity. A student’s imitation of his or her tutor in architectural design tutorials can ignite their creativity. On the other hand, a tutor’s imitation of his or her student helps them to read the student’s mind, and offer a better teaching. In this paper, ‘reciprocal imitation’ in architectural design studio is introduced, which comprises ‘implicit imitation’ by the student of the tutor and ‘responding imitation’ by the tutor. In this regard, the views of two well-known researchers in design studies, namely, Donald Schön and Kees Dorst, are compared in order to attain two concepts of ‘descriptive imitation’ and ‘explanatory imitation’, clarifying them in the ‘designerly’ interaction between the student and the tutor; the interaction that propers architectural design education. Through ‘conceptualisation’ of the existing literature via rational reasoning, the various aspects of reciprocal imitation are deduced to identify how the ‘mainstream design’ arises from ‘mainstream education’, and ‘creative design’ from ‘creative education’. The overarching aim of the research is to identify and clarify those aspects of reciprocal imitation between the tutor and the student that can make tutorials more creative. The result is a diagram that shows the position and the relationship between different concepts of reciprocal imitation in tutorials.


صدرام، وحید و حمید ندیمی. «نقش دست‌نگاری استاد در آموزش طراحی». در صُفه، ش 68 (بهار 1394)، ص 5-18.
صدرام، وحید. «تقلید درست، پیش‌‌نیاز خلاقیت؛ یادگیری تقلیدی در آموزش فرایند طراحی معماری»، در صفه، ش 76 (بهار 1396)، ص 5-16.
ــــــــ . طراحی در ملاقات خلاق؛ وجوه آموزش تقلیدمحور در جلسة کرکسیون طراحی معماری، رسالة دکتری، دانشکدة معماری و شهرسازی، تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 1394.
قدوسی‌‌فر، سیدهادی و ایرج اعتصام و فرح حبیب و هاجر پناهی برجای. «آموزش سنتی معماری در ایران و ارزیابی آن از دیدگاه یادگیری مبتنی بر مغز»، در مطالعات معماری ایران، ش 1 (بهار و تابستان 1391)، ص 39-58.
لاوسون، برایان. طراحان چگونه می‌‌اندیشند؟ ابهام‌‌زدائی از فرایند طراحی، ترجمة حمید ندیمی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 1392.
ندیمی، حمید. «درس شیوه‌‌های آموزش و طراحی معماری؛ مبحث قابلیت‌محوری»، دورة دکتری معماری، تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، زمستان 1389.
ندیمی، هادی. «درس حکمت و هنر؛ مبحث سیری در مطالعات نظری»، دورة دکتری معماری، تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، پاییز 1390.
Burnard, Pamela & Sarah Hennessy. Reflective Practices in Arts Education, Netherland: Springer, 2006.
Cartmill, Erica & Sian Beilock & Susan Goldin-Meadow. “A Word in the Hand: Action, Gesture and Mental Representation in Humans and Non-humman Primates”, in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Vol. 367 (2011), pp. 129-143.
Chiu, Lai Fong. “Critical Reflection: more than Nuts and Bolts”, in Action Research, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2006), pp. 183-203.
Dorst, Kees. “The Core of Design Thinking and its Application”, in Design Studies, Vol. 32 (2011), pp. 521-532.
________ . “Design Research: A Revolution-Waiting-to-Happen”, in Design Studies, Vol. 29 (2007), pp. 4-11.
________ . Describing Design: A Comparison of Paradigms, Netherland: Rotterdam, 1997.
Dubberly, Hugh. How Do You Design, San Francisco: Dubberly Design Office, 2004.
Hurley, Susan. “The Shared Circuits Model (SCM): How Control, Mirroring, and Simulation Can Enable Imitation, Deliberation, and Mindreading”, in Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 31 (2008), pp. 1-58.
Koskinen, Kaj & Pekka Pihlanto & Hannu Vanharanta. “Tacit Knowledge Acquisition and Sharing in a Project Work Context”, in International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 21 (2003), pp. 281-290.
Lakin, Jessica & Tanya Chartrand. “Using Nonconscious Behavioral Mimicry to Create Affiliation and Rapport”, in American Psychological Society, Vol. 14, No. 4 (2003), pp. 334-339.
Miklosi, Adam. “The Ethological Analysis of Imitation”, in Biol. Rev., Vol. 74 (1999), pp. 347-374.
Morgan, Clifford & Rechard King. Introduction to Psychology, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1971.
Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl. “Behind the Mask: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on Interaction in the Design Studio”, in Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 53, No. 4 (2000), pp. 194-206.
Polanyi, Michael. “Tacit Knowing: Its Bearing on Some Problems of Philosophy”, in Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1962), pp. 601-616.
Rook, Laurens & Daan van Knippenberg. “Creativity and Imitation: Effects of Regulatory Focus and Creative Exemplar Quality”, in Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4 (2011), pp. 346-356.
Schön, Donald. The Design Studio: An Exploration of its Traditions and Potentials, London: RIBA Publications, 1985.
________ . Educating the Reflective Practitioner, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
________ . The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action, USA: Basic Books, 1983.
Suwa, Masaki & John Gero & Terry Purcell. “Unexpected Discoveries: How Designers Discover Hidden Features in Sketches”; University of Sydney, in NSW 2006 Australia (2006). (This paper is a copy of: Suwa, M. & J.S. Gero & T. Purcell, T, (1999) “Unexpected Discoveries: How Designers Discover Hidden Features in Sketches”, in Gero, J. S. and Tversky, B. (eds), Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, pp. 145-162).
Suwa, Masaki & Barbara Tversky. “How Do Designers Shift their Focus of Attention in their own Sketches?”, in AAAI Technical Report FS-97-03 (1997), pp. 102-108.
Velde, Sytske. Imitation of Emotion: How Meaning Affects the Link between Imitation and Liking, PhD Thesis, Gedrags- en Maatschappijwetenschappen, Netherlands, 2009.
Warnick, Bryan. Imitation and Education: A Philosophical Inquiry into Learning by Example. USA: State University of New York Press, 2008.
Zhou, Jiangyuan. “The Effects of Reciprocal Imitation on Teacher-Student Relationships and Student Learning Outcomes”, in International Mind, Brain, and Education Society, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2012), pp. 66-73.