Evaluation of Thermal and Visual Performance of Windows in Classrooms of Tehran

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University

2 Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University


Providing suitable environmental conditions for educational buildings has always been critical because of the negative influence of thermal and visual discomfort on students’ learning and performance. Unsatisfactory conditions mostly caused by overheating and glare due to the presence of direct solar radiation, could be compensated by appropriate window configurations. Since occupants are obliged to sit in designated positions in classrooms, spatial analysis of the thermal and visual field are necessary in addition to temporal evaluations.  This paper applies both spatio-temporal thermal and visual comfort metrics, to assess the effect of window design on comfort by dynamic simulations in a typical classroom model in Tehran’s climatic condition. In addition to comfort the primary energy demands have also been assessed in different window types. Presented graphs can be used to select the optimum window based on the desired window-wall ratio and orientation. According to results high performance windows with high LSG provide spatio-temporal thermal comfort in all orientations considering a WWR of less than 35%.  However, spatio-temporal visual comfort is not achieved without external shadings except in the north-facing windows. Results show solar-control coated glazing (low SHGS) with high VT can be used as an alternative to solar shadings, wherever exterior shading is neither permitted, nor possible. 


اطلاعات هواشناسی تهران:
زمردیان، زهراسادات. آسایش حرارتی در فضاهای آموزشی شهر تهران: کاربرد شاخصهای فضا-زمانی برای ارزیابی آسایش. پایاننامة دکتری معماری، استاد راهنما: شهرام پوردیهیمی. تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، دانشکدة معماری و شهرسازی، بهمن 1395.
شفیعی، ب. روشهای بهینة مصرف برق در مدارس, سازمان نوسازی مدارس، 1391.
مرکز تحقیقات ساختمان و مسکن. مقررات ملی ساختمان ایران، ﻣﺒﺤﺚ نوزدهم: صرفهجویی در مصرف انرژی، تهران: ﻧﺸﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻌة اﻳﺮان، 1391.
وزارت نیرو، ترازنامة انرژی ایران.
Arens, E., et al. “Modeling the Comfort Effects of Short-wave Solar Radiation Indoors”, in Building and Environment, 88(0) (2015), pp. 3-9.
Atzeri, A.M., et al. “Comfort Metrics for an Integrated Evaluation of Buildings Performance”, in Energy and Buildings, 127 (2016), pp. 411-424.
Author, B.L., et al. “Thermal Autonomy as Metric and Design Process”, in CaGBC National Conference and Expo: Pushing the Boundary–Net Positive Buildings, Vancouver, 2013.
Bessoudo, M., et al. “Indoor Thermal Environmental Conditions near Glazed Facades with Shading Devices– Part I: Experiments and Building Thermal Model”, in Building and Environment, 45(11) (2010), pp. 2506-2516.
Boubekri, M. & L.L. Boyer. “Effect of Window Size and Sunlight Presence on Glare”, in Lighting Research and Technology, 24(2) (1992), pp. 69-74.
Cappelletti, F., et al. “Energy Performance And Long-Term Evaluation Of Internal Thermal Comfort of an Office Building with Different Kinds of Glazing Systems and Window Sizes”, in International High Performance Buildings Conference, USA, 2012.
Cappelletti, F., et al. “Passive Performance of Glazed Components in Heating and Cooling of an Open-space Office under Controlled Indoor Thermal Comfort”, in Building and Environment, vol. 72, p. 131-144.
Carlucci, S. & L. Pagliano & A. Sangalli. “Statistical Analysis of Ranking Capability of Long-term Thermal Discomfort Indices and their Adoption in Optimization Processes to Support Building Design”, in Building and Environment, 2014.
Chan, M. & C. Mak. “Thermal Comfort Levels in a Room with Solar Radiation”, in Indoor and Built Environment, 17(6) (2008), pp. 516-524.
Chan, Ying-Chieh, et al, “A Systematic Method for Selecting Roller Shade Properties for Glare Protection”, in Energy and Building, February 2015.
Fasi, M.A. & I.M. Budaiwi. “Energy Performance of Windows in Office Buildings Considering Daylight Integration and Visual Comfort in Hot Climates”, in Energy and Buildings, 108 (2015), pp. 307-316.
Garnier, C. & T. Muneer & L. McCauley. “Super Insulated Aerogel Windows: Impact on Daylighting and Thermal Performance”, Building and Environment, 94 (2015), pp. 231-238.
Hammad, F. & B. Abu-Hijleh. “The Energy Savings Potential of Using Dynamic External Louvers in an Office Building”, in Energy and Buildings,. 42(10) (2010), pp. 1888-1895.
Hee, W.J., et al. “The Role of Window Glazing on Daylighting and Energy Saving in Buildings”, in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42 (2015), pp. 323-343.
Huizenga, C., et al. “Window Performance for Human Thermal Comfort”, in Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, 2006.
Inanici, M.N. & F.N. Demirbilek. “Thermal Performance Optimization of Building Aspect Ratio and South Window Size in five Cities Having Different Climatic Characteristics of Turkey”, in Building and Environment, 35 (2000), pp. 41-52.
Jaber, S. & S. Ajib. “Thermal and Economic Windows Design for Different Climate Zones”, in Energy and Buildings, 43(11) (2011), pp. 3208-3215.
Korsavi, S.S. & Z.S. Zomorodian, & M. Tahsildoost. “Visual Comfort Assessment of Daylight and Sunlight Areas: A Longitudinal Field Survey in Classrooms in Kashan”, in Iran. Energy and Buildings, 128 (2016), pp. 305-318.
La Gennusa, M., et al. “A Model for Managing and Evaluating Solar Radiation for Indoor Thermal Comfort”, in Solar Energy, 81(5) (2007), pp. 594-606.
Lee, J.W., et al. “Optimization of Building Window System in Asian Regions by Analyzing Solar Heat Gain and Daylighting Elements”, in Renewable Energy, 50 (2013), pp. 522-531.
Mackey, C. “Pan Climatic Humans-Shaping Thermal Habits in an Unconditioned Society”, in Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015.
Reinhart, C. “Opinion: Climate-based Daylighting Metrics in LEEDv4–A Fragile Progress”, in Lighting Research and Technology, 47(4) (2015), pp. 388-388.
Standard IES LM-83-12, Approved Method: IES Spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA) and Annual Sunlight Exposure (ASE).
Tsikaloudaki, K. et al. “The Energy Performance of Windows in Mediterranean Regions”, in Energy and Buildings,. 92 (2015), pp. 180-187.
U.S. Green Building Council. LEED V4 for Building Design and Construction, 2013.
Van Dijken, F. & J.E.M.H. Van Bronswijk & J. Sundell. “Indoor Environment and Pupils’ Health in primary schools”, in Building Research & Information, 34(5) (2006), pp. 437-446.
Vanhoutteghem, L., et al. “Impact of Façade Window Design on Energy, Daylighting and Thermal Comfort in Nearly zero-Energy Houses”, in Energy and Buildings, 102 (2015), pp. 149-156.
Webb, A.L. “Mapping Comfort: An Analysis Method For Understanding Diversity In The Thermal Envirnoment”, in 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Chambéry, France, 2013.
White, A. & M. Holmes, “Advanced Simulation Applications Using Room”, in Eleventh International IBPSA Conference, 2009.
Zomorodian, Z.S. & M. Tahsildoost & M. Hafezi. “Thermal Comfort in Educational Buildings: A Review Article”, in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59 (2016), pp. 895-906.