Developing a new Framework for Providing Permanent Housing after Earthquakes in Vulnerable Urban areas Using Build-Back-Better Approach (The Case of District 3, Sari City)

Document Type : Original Article


Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran


Post-disaster reconstruction remains problematic despite the increasing number of disasters worldwide. This research calls for a systematic approach to pre-earthquake planning, which focuses on Build-Back-Better principles and its application in post-earthquake housing reconstruction.
The study uses the sequential methodology approach to provide a framework for defining the key aspects of Build-Back-Better and its practical application. First, a qualitative approach is used to identify and interpret the main dimensions of providing permanent housing with a Build-Back-Better approach in District 3 of Sari city. Data from semi-structured interviews and field observations is analysed through qualitative content analysis, with results quantitatively analysed in the second part of the research using survey method by receiving two rounds of feedback from experts.
The Build-Back-Better framework for post-earthquake housing consists of four categories and fourteen sub-categories. In order to emphasise the importance of pre-earthquake measures, this framework begins with earthquake risk reduction in physical, economical, socio-cultural and legal dimensions. Then, in the category of community participation, it defines the purpose of participation, the key participants, the type of participation, and the needed resources. Following that, the reconstruction of financial and organisational arrangements is discussed in two parts; resource procurement and organisational design. Finally, the paper presents the requirements for the design and implementation of permanent housing in the form of four subcategories: executive requirements, design approach, economic efficiency, and socio-cultural considerations. The output of this research is a unique framework that can help planners and implementers of recovery projects in risk reduction before the earthquake and in accelerating the provision of safe and affordable housing after the earthquake by predicting the needs and guiding executive actions.


Main Subjects

فلاحی، علیرضا. تأملاتی بر رویکردها و مدل‌های بازسازی پس از سانحه. تهران: سازمان پیشگیری و مدیریت بحران شهر تهران، 1396.
هفت‌شهرآریا. طرح بهسازی و نوسازی بافت فرسوده ساری، مطالعات سطح یک. ساری: شهرداری ساری، 1389.
Ahmed, I. “Resilient Housing Reconstruction in the Developing World”. in A. March & M. Kornakova, Urban Planning for Disaster Recovery, 171-186, Elsevier, 2017.
Bryman, A. Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Clinton, W.J. Lessons Learned from Tsunami Recovery: Key Propositions for Building Back Better, Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery. New York: Office of the UN Secretary-General, 2006.
da Silva, J. Lessons from Aceh; Key Considerations in Post-Disaster Reconstruction. Rugby: Practical Action Publishing, 2010.
Davis, I. and D. Alexander. Recovery from Disaster. New York: Routledge, 2016.
IRP. Redesigning Systems for Resilience through Recovery: Assessing Progress and the Unfinished Agenda at the Midpoint of the Sendai Framework. International Recovery Platform Herald, 2022.
Jordan, E.  Javernick-Will, A. and B. Amadei. “Pathways to Community Recovery and Resiliency”. in Proceeding of Engineering Project Organizations Conference, Boulder, Co, United States, 2011.
Kennedy, J., J. Ashmore, B. Elizabet, and I. Kelman. “The Meaning of ‘Build Back Better’: Evidence from Post-Tsunami Aceh and Sri Lanka”. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 16(1) (2008): 24-36.
Lizarralde, G. Unnatural Disasters; Why Most Responses to Risk and Climate Change Fail but Some Succeed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2021.
Mannakkara, S., S. Wilkinson, and R. Potangaroa. Resilient Post Disaster Recovery through Building Back Better. New York: Routledge, 2019.
Mileti, D.S. Disaster by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Washington DC: Joseph Henry Press, 1999.
NHRAIC. Holistic Disaster Recovery: Ideas for Building Local Sustainability after a Natural Disaster. University of Colorado, 2001.
Sarkissian, R.D., Y. Diab, and M. Vuillet. “The ‘Build-Back-Better’ Concept for Reconstruction of Critical Infrastructure: A Review”. Safety Science, 157(4) (2023): 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2022.105932
Tas, M. “Study on Permanent Housing Production after 1999 Earthquake in Kocaeli (Turkey)”. Disaster Prevention and Management, 19(1) (2010): 6-19.
Twigg, J. Characteristics of a Disaster-resilient Community – a Guidance Note. London: DFID Disaster Risk Reduction Interagency Coordination Group, 2007.
UNDP. Recovery and Reconstruction after the 2023 Earthquakes in Türkiye UNDP Offer and Proposed Projects. United Nations Development Program, 2023.
UNISDR. Sandai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Sandai, Japan: United Nations, 2015.
USAID. Introduction to Disaster Risk Reduction. United States Agency for International Development, 2011.
Wisner, B., P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. London: Routledge, 2004.