Optimizing the Responsive Form for Post - Disaster Temporary Shelter in a Cold Climate

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Islamic Azad University South Tehran Branch

2 International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology


Millions of people yearly become homeless due to natural disasters. Different natural disasters can cause severe consequences in which people get displaced. Therefore, a suitable shelter should be provided as soon as possible. Iran is always susceptible to accidents such as earthquake and flood because of its geographical location which can make a lot of social and economic damages, and it causes homelessness for a large number of people. Losing one’s home usually causes a high degree of stress in crisis conditions, because small communities of people are also scattered and loneliness adds much more stress to this situation.Paying attention to temporary accommodation in support of injured people is one of the things that is not only inevitable but also necessary in today's world. Despite providing the final approaches, there are many problems in supplying thermal comfort inside the shelter. Finally, victims will make changes to their shelter or they’ll abandon these spaces. Most problems of temporary accommodation are due to misconceptions pertinent to situations people experience after any accident. If the needs of the victims are met among all post-disaster demands to provide shelter, many difficulties reported later will be eliminated. People usually have no say and they are not asked to identify their desires.Finally, projects which are implemented have often been inefficient and they are inappropriate solutions. In crisis, only shelter can protect people from harsh climatic conditions. Therefore, climate has direct impact on the shelter itself and its materials. So in the present research it is attempted to supply the relative comfort conditions for victims by offering suitable shelter forms. Due to different duration from hours to weeks in which people are displaced in a region and that, this period includes the whole day and night with different climatic needs, so suppling suitable shelter as soon as possible can be deemed equivalent to other basic needs.The following research is of type applied for optimizing existing shelter systems and is of qualitative nature in the theoretical studies section to provide comprehensive information about natural disasters and experiences of making shelter in different places. To determine the appropriate forms for shelter by Design Builder Software, comments can be made related to optimal climatic shelter for post-disaster circumstances by stimulating and internal temperature tests. Finally, with the results of simulation and thermal analysis, it can be stated which of the shelter forms would have a better temperature performance. Because the main factor affecting the research is climate and this will dictate the following needs, so shelter form will be important in response to the climate. What its form is, besides its orientation and spatial combination, will make a different thermal condition. Pertaining to cold climates, the cold factor is the main issue that must be taken into account. Thus, primary aims in this climate should be focus on preventing heat loss and enjoying sunlight.One of the important goals in the post-accident shelter discussion is that the shelter can accommodate different numbers of families. Therefore, a form and pattern must be considered that can be used both in the right combination for several families and in having acceptable temperature performance. In comparison among 11 shelter forms with equal volume, results show that Dome form has the most suitable indoor temperature conditions. After that, there is form with polygon plans and angled flat walls with conical roof, and finally cubic shape with arched roof are more suitable than other forms. Since the cube form of shelter with different roof shapes have relatively similar temperature conditions, construction ease and user’s requests should be considered in choosing the optimal form.