A Genealogy of Exclusive Spaces in Suburban Areas of the Caspian Sea South Coast; from Quiddity to Role-Taking in Law-Making and Planning Systems

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Researcher, Institut de Géographie et Durabilité (IGD), University of Lausanne, Switzerland

2 One of the most important concerns of urban and regional planners is how to fairly distribute space between activities. Multiple intervening factors complicates their efforts to find a balance between demands and resources. This is


One of the most important concerns of urban and regional planners is how to fairly distribute space between activities. Multiple intervening factors complicates their efforts to find a balance between demands and resources. This is undoubtedly even more crucial when it comes to valuable lands such as coastal, forest, and agricultural lands and the like. The appropriation of public spaces such as coastal lands or lands of national value, particularly in coastal suburban areas is equally seen in the developed and less developed countries. However, and despite apparent similarities, there are differences between societies both in the essence and the way planning and law-making systems deal with it.  Using a qualitative method as well as analysing documents and collected data, and also coding semi-structured interviews with informed activists, the present paper attempts to first offer a typological framework for exclusive spaces in the studied area, and then an analysis of strengths and weaknesses of planning and law-making systems to monitor and control these processes. In order to do so, 27 planning documents belonging to a 70-year period (1928–2017), together with laws, regulations, and national and regional bylaws were investigated. Also, 12 semi-structured interviews were arranged with informed locals. The outputs show that there are two types of exclusive spaces in the area: those formed by economic powers and those formed by political powers, structured respectively around consumption and culture discourses. Furthermore, in circumstances under which the formation of exclusive spaces is older than mechanisms of planning and law-making, the institutions controlling these mechanisms struggle with implementation issues, sectorianism, and conflicting laws and prioritisation of institutional over public interests.


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