Spatial Organization in Urban Design

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


Associate Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University


A city is comprised of elements, which generate its internal activity patterns. Such interactions culminate in the integration of urban elements creating the spatial order recognized by citizens. Content and meaning of urban elements and their interaction requires a spatial configuration, which creates and enhances urban identity. Each urban space has its specific spatial character. Visual qualities of built and natural elements as well as spatial configuration create this special spatial identity. Different urban design experts have treated this concept of spatial organization under diverse titles, such as ‘urban armature’. Urban armature defines an urban configuration of civic buildings, urban and green spaces, access network, monuments, etc. of a special locality. Thus, urban armature is a tool for analysis of spatial organization.A city experiences evolution processes while transforming from towns to cities and from cities to metropolises: its spatial organization evolves over time, while many of its elements gradually change. In this process, the town forms the central area of the bigger city. Nevertheless, insufficient management of urban evolution leads to a discordant change of elements, resulting in a chaotic urban configuration of the urban core.

  1. آگ برن، دبلیو. اف. زمینة جامعه شناسى، ترجمة ا. ح. آریان پور، تهران: فرانکلین، 1352.
  2. بیکن، ادموند. طراحى شهرها، ترجمة فرزانه طاهرى، تهران: انتشارات مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات شهرسازى و معمارى ایران، 1376.
  3. حبیبى، محسن. استخوا نبندى شهر تهران، معاونت فنى و عمرانى شهردارى تهران، 1376.
  4. شیرین زاد، سارا. پایان نامة کارشناسى ارشد طراحى شهرى، 1387.
  5. ذکاوت، کامران. « چشم انداز توسعة مرکز شهر تهران و چارچوب طراحى شهرى اراضى عباس آباد». فصلنامة جستارهاى شهرسازى، ش 12، (بهار 1384)، ص 38-51
  6. ذکاوت، کامران.« طراحى شهرى و تأکیدهاى محتوایى در نظام هدایت و راهبرى شهرى». (1381)، مدیریت شهرى
  7. ذکاوت، کامران. « جایگاه سیاست هاى طراحى در نظام هدایت و راهبرى طراحى شهرى». فصلنامه جستارهاى شهرسازى شماره 13 و 14، (1384).
  8. ذکاوت، کامران (1385). « هویت شهرهاى جدید نقش عوامل طبیعى و مصنوعى» . تجربه شهرهاى جدید ایران و جهان مرکز تحقیقات وزارت مسکن و شهرسازى.
  9. ذکاوت، کامران (1389).« اراضى عباس آباد ». نشریه منظر
  10. Alonso, W. Location and Land Use, Harvard University Press, 1964.
  11. Appleyard, D. & K. Lynch & J. R. Myer. The View from the Road, Cambridge M.A: M.I.T. Press, 1964.
  12. Bacon, Edmund. Design of Cities, London: Thames and Hudson Lt., 1967.
  13. Batty, M. “Complexity in City Systems: Understanding, Evolution and Design”, in CASA, Working Paper, Centre of Advanced Spatial Analysis, No. 117 (March 2007).
  14. Batty, M. & P. Longley. Fractal Cities, A Geometry of Form and Function, London: Academic Press, 1994.
  15. Bentley, Ian. “Urban Trans formation” Power, People and Urban Design, London: Routledge, 1999.
  16. Bertaud, Alain. The Spatial Structure of Cities, PDF/Adobe Acrobat, 2001.
  17. Carmona, M. et. al. Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford: Architectural Press, 2003.
  18. Carmona, Matthew. “Controlling Urban Design- Part 1: A Possible Renaissance?”, in Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 1, N. 1 (February 1996), Carfax, pp. 47- 74.
  19. Erickson, Bill. Approaching. Urban Design. The Design Process. Edited B Marion Roberts & Clara Greed, England: Long man, 2002.
  20. Golledge, R. G. “Human wayfinding and Cognitive Maps” In R. G. Golledge (Ed.), Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes, Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1999.
  21. Hillier, B. The common Language of Space, Space Syntax Laboratory, Retrieved 2009, from http:www.spacesyntax. org/publications/commonlang.html, 1998.
  22. ________ . Space Is the Machine; a Configurationally Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  23. Hillier, B. & J. Hansen. The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  24. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, London: Peregrine Books, 1961.
  25. Lioyd _ Jones, Tony. in Lioyd – Jones ed., A Review of Modeling and Simulation in Urban Spatial Planning, London: Computers in Urban Spatial Planning ODA, 1996.
  26. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City, Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T prees, 1960.
  27. ________ . A Theory of Good City Form, Cambridge Ma: M.I.T press, 1981.
  28. Maki, Fumihiko. Space, City, Order and Making, London: Taylor Books, 2003.
  29. ________. Investigation in Collective Form, London: Taylor Books, 2006.
  30. Punter, J. & M. Carmona. The Design Dimension of Planning, London: E & FN/ Spon, 1992.
  31. Salingaros, N. A. Principles of Urban Structure, Amsterdam: Techne Press, 2005.
  32. ________ . “Theory of the Urban Web”, Journal of Urban Design, 1998, pp. 53-71
  33. Trancik , Roger. Finding Lost Space: Theories or Urban Design, New York, 1986.
  34. Thompson, C. & P. Travlou. Open Space People Space, NewYourk: Taylor and Francis, 2007.
  35. The Urban, Task, Force. Towards an Urban Renaissance, London: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1999.