An Introduction to the Interaction of Gender and Space

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


Urban Design, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University


This paper considers the role of gender in urban planning. The basic theories on gender philosophy are first reviewed to clarify the nature of gender representation in the urban space. The potential of urban planning interventions to improve the urban environment in response to the needs of all social groups is then assessed.It is demonstrated that although gender differences are based on the natural differences between the two sexes, they are defined in a certain historical, cultural and social context. It is argued that a common representation of gender in space is ‘segregated space’—a hierarchic defense system to demarcate private and public domains. Its concluded that the interaction of urban space and gender requires a multidisciplinary conduct, a pluralistic approach and universal planning criteria. It would then be possible to create a balanced gender-sensitive urban space.

  1. آبوت، پاملا و کلر والاس. جامعه شناسی زنان، ترجمۀ منیژه نجم عراقی، تهران: نشر نی، 1383 .
  2. امیرابراهیمی، مسرت. « فضای عمومی در حصار »، فصل نامۀ معماری و شهرسازی، شماره 64-65 )فروردین 1381 (، ص ۶۳ - ۶۷ .
  3. ریترز، جرج. نظریۀ جامعه شناسی در دوران معاصر، ترجمۀ محسن ثلاثی، تهران: انتشارات علمی، 1374 .
  4. فرانک فرزانه. راهنمای طراحی شهری معطوف به جنسیت، پایان نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، ۱۳۸۵ .
  5. گلکار، کورش.« تئور یهای طراحی شهری: تحلیل گون هشناختی تئور یها» ، صفه، ش 29 )پاییز و زمستان 1378 (، ص ۱۶ - ۳۳ .
  6. گیدنز، آنتونی. جامعه شناسی، ترجمۀ منوچهر صبوری، تهران: نشر نی، 1383.
  7. مدن یپور، علی. طراحی فضای شهری: نگرشی بر فرایندهای اجتماعی مکانی، ترجمۀ فرهاد مرتضا یی، تهران: شرکت پردازش و برنامه ریزی شهری، ۱۳۸۴
  8. Auckland City Council. The Residential Design Guide, 2001. Bell, Wendy. Women and Community Safety, South Australia: Bell Planning Associates, 1998.
  9. Birmingham City Council. Places for All,2001.
  10. Bosingstoke and Dean Borough Council. Place to Live, urban Design guidance for residential development, 2002.
  11. Carmona, Matthew & Tim Heath & Taner Oc & Steven Tiesdell. Public Places, Urban Spaces, Elsevier: Architectural Press, 2005.
  12. Dame, Terri. Women and Community Safety: an Integrated Strategy, 2002.
  13. Day, k. “The Ethic of Care and Women’s Experiences of Public Space”, Journal of Environmsntal Design, 2006.
  14. DETR, “By Design”, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 2000.
  15. Deutsche , R. Men in Space,Cambridge,Mass: MIT Press,1996.
  16. European Policies Resarch Center. Gender Equality and Housing, Ireland: University of Strathclyde, 2001.
  17. Federation of Canadian Municipalities.“A City Tailored to Women”, 2004.
  18. Federation of Canadian Municipalities. “Incrating Women’s Participation in Municipal Decision – making Processes”,2004.
  19. Gatenby, Jeanette. Women In The Built Environment:the Design and Construction of where we Live, Work and Play, Tasmanian Women’s Consultative Council, 1993.
  20. Gehl, Jan & Helle Scot. Public Spaces and Public Life: City of Adelaide, Adelaide city Council, 2002.
  21. Greed, Clara. The Rocky Path from Women and Planning to GM, Bristol: University of the West England, 2003.
  22. ________ .“Gender mainstreaming within local planning authorities”, Municipal Engineer, 156 lssue ME2, ICE, 2003.
  23. ________ . Women & Planning, Creating Gerdered Realities, Routedge, 1994.
  24. ________ . Surveying Sisters, Women in a Traditional Male Profession, Routedge,1991.
  25. Hayden, D. “What Would a Non-Sexiest City Be Like?”, in The City Reader, Landon: Routledge, 2000.
  26. Laidlaw, Diana & Jane Lomax & Mary O’kane. Women in Adelaide,Adelaide city Concil, 2000
  27. Larsson, Anita. Gender Perspectives in Housing and Planning, HDM/ Lund University, 2002
  28. Ministry for the Evironment. People+ Places+ Space, A design guide for Urban New Zealand, 2002.
  29. Planning SA. Crim Prevention through Environmental Design and Urban Design, south Australia, 2002.
  30. Pollock, Grisilda. Vision and Difference: Feminity, Feminism and Histories of Art, London: Routledge, 1992.
  31. Reeves, Dory. Gender Equality and Plan Making, The Gender Mainstreaming Toolkil, RTPI, 2003.
  32. Rendell,Jane & Barbara Penner & Iain Borden. Gerder Space, Architecture, Routdge,2000
  33. SMIL. Sustainable Mobility for All!, SMIL-Europe, 2004.
  34. Stummvol, Gunter. Design Against Crim in Vienna: A Feminist Approuch, Vienna: Department of Sociology, 2003.
  35. Tibbalds, Francis. “Urban Design: Public and private Realm”, The Architect’s Jounal,1990, p. .
  36. Wilson, Elizabeth. The Sphinx in the City:Urban Life,the Control of Disorder and Women,London: Virago,1991.
  37. Wolf, Jane, «The Invisible Flaneuse: Women and the Literature of Modernity»,Theory ,Culture and Society,1985.
  38. Women’s Design Service. Cycling Networks Hit the Road, WDs, 2004.
  39. ________ . Making Safer Places. Brunswick Estate, WDS, 2005.