The Human Being in the Evolution of Spatial Meaning in the 19th and 20th Century Architecture

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


Faculty of Architecture, University of Tehran


This article surveys the evolution of concepts regarding the meaning of space in 19th and 20th Century. It first reviews the etymological development of the concept of space, in particular in view of the theories of Kant and Semper and later those of environmental psychologist. It is concluded that in 19th century, the meaning of space evolved from a material enclosure to a continuum linking inside to outside. The Empathy Theory explained space as the extension of the body. In the 20th century, space defined the relationship of human beings to their environment and was linked to the concept of place. The evolution of space notion was in line with consideration of the role of human beings. Although the interaction of human beings and architecture is not given due consideration.

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