Various Approaches to Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction: From Birth to Maturity

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


Associate Professor, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University


Although post-disaster reconstruction activities have been practiced for a long-time, relatively new approaches were developed since 1970s. In recent decades, housing reconstruction after disasters has been studied mostly from the point of view of “household control”. Such approach has attracted policy makers and authorities because of its capacity in empowering community in order to participate actively in processes of recovery. There are a number of criteria which should be considered, such as: housing cost, promoting family and community security, upgrading livelihood, cultural situation and copying mechanism. Postdisaster housing reconstruction has been adopted in five categories:•Cash Approach: Unconditional financial assistance is given without technical support.•Owner-Driven Reconstruction: Conditional financial assistance is given, accompanied by regulations and technical support aimed at ensuring that houses are built back better.•Community-Driven Reconstruction: Financial and/or material assistance is channeled through community organizations that are actively involved in decision making and managing reconstruction.•Agency-Driven Reconstruction in-situ: Refers to an approach in which a governmental or non-governmental agency hires a construction company to replace damaged houses in their pre-disaster location. •Agency-Driven Reconstruction in Relocated Sites: Refers to an approach in which a governmental or non-governmental agency hires a construction company to build new houses in a new site.The advantages and disadvantages of the mentioned approaches are discussed based on their contexts and characteristics of affected populations. The paper resulted in selecting the Owner-Driven Reconstruction approach as a high potential for empowering survivors, as well as, capacity building and cost benefit appropriate housing reconstruction policy.

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