Dichotomous Thinking and Spatial Concepts

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University

2 Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University


The concept of space in environmental design disciplines has evolved in interaction with philosophical and sociological conceptualization. The dichotomy in philosophical thinking has led to definitions of relative and absolute space. Other dualistic concepts of space in architecture include: perceived vs. conceived space; representation of space vs. representational space; physical vs. geographical space or physical vs. social space; virtual vs. real space; static vs. dynamic space, etc. By review of these dichotomies, it is concluded that they all are the result of assuming the space to be an absolute, abstract and physical entity. It is however, suggested that in fact space is a complex relational entity, which is the result of multifaceted interactions and is thus under constant transformation. It is therefore necessary to continuously review and revise its definition through a holistic, multifactorial and multidisciplinary approach.

  1. منابع و مآخذ
  2. گروتر، یورگ. زیباییشناسی در معماری، ترجمة جهانشاه پاکزاد و عبدالرضا همایون، انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 1375.
  3. لاوین، ت.ز. از سقراط تا سارتر، ترجمة پرویز بابائی، موسسه انتشارات نگاه، 1387.
  4. Antoniloi, Manola. “Virtual Architecture”, in Peter Gaffney (ed.), The Force of the Virtual: Deleuze, Science and Philosophy, Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, Spring 2010.
  5. Aristotle. Complete Works, Translated by Jonathan Barnes, Princeton University Press, 1991.
  6. ________ . Physics, trans. R. P. Hardie and R. K. Gaye, The University of Adelaide Library, 2014.
  7. Bloomer, Jeniffer. “The Unbearable Being of Lightness”, in Petrescu, Doina (ed.), Altering Feminine Practices: Feminist Politics and Poetics of Space, Routledge, 2007, pp. 281- 296.
  8. Boyer, M. Christine. Cyber Cities, Princeton Architectural Press, 1996.
  9. Broadbent, G. Design in Architecture: Architecture and Human Sciences, David Fulton Publishers, 1988.
  10. Casey, Edward. Fate of Place: A Philosophical History, University of California Press, 1998.
  11. Castells, Manuel. The Rise of the Network Society, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996.
  12. Collins, Peter. Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture: 1750-1950, Faber and Faber, 1965.
  13. Colquhoun, Alan. Modernity and the Classic Tradition, MIT Press, 1991.
  14. Coplestone, Fredrick Charles. A History of Philosophy. Vol. 4, Image Books, 1994.
  15. Davoudi, Simin and Ian Strange. Conceptions of Space and Place in Strategic Spatial Planning, Routledge, 2009.
  16. Dehaene, Michiel & Lieven De Cauter. Heterotopia and The City: Public Space in a Post-civil Society, Routledge, 2008.
  17. Einstein, Albert. “Foreword”, in Jammer, Max (ed.), Concepts of Space-The History of Theories of Space in Physics, (1954)1982.
  18. Evans, Dylan. An Introductory Dictionary to Lacanian Psychoanalysis. Routledge, 1996.
  19. Franck, Karen A. and Bianca Lepori. Architecture from the inside out, Wiley- academy, 2007.
  20. Foucault. Michel. “Of Other Spaces-Heterotopia”, in Dehaene, Michiel & Lieven De Cauter (eds.), Heterotopia and The City, Routledge, 2008.
  21. ________ . “Space, Knowledge and Power”, in Foucault Reader edited by Paul Rabinow, Pantheon Books, 1984.
  22. Gaffney, Peter. The Force of the Virtual: Deleuze, Science and Philosophy, University of Minnesota Press, 2010.
  23. Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a new Tradition, Harvard University Press, 1997(1940).
  24. Grosz, Elizabeth. Architecture from the Outside- Essays on Virtual and Real Space, 2001.
  25. ________ . Sexual Subversions: Three French Feminists, Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd, 1989.
  26. Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension, Anchor Books, 1966.
  27. Hays, K. Michael. Architecture Theory since 1968, The MIT Press, 2000.
  28. Hillier, Bill & Julienne Hanson. The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge University Press, 1984(2003).
  29. Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine-A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Space Syntax, 2007.
  30. Holl, Steven & Alberto Perez-Gomez & Juhani Pallasmaa. Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture. William Stout Publishers, 2006.
  31. Hubbard, Phil. City, Routledge Press, 2006.
  32. Jammer, Max. Concepts of Space-The History of Theories of Space in Physics, Dover Publications Inc, (1954)1982.
  33. Jay, Nancy. “Gender and dichotomy”, in Feminist Studies 7, l, in Grosz, Elizabeth (ed.), Sexual Subversions, Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd, 1989.
  34. Kant, Emanuel. The Critique of Pure Reason, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  35. Lawson, Bryan. The Language of Space, Architectural Press, 2001.
  36. Lefebvre, Henri. The Production of Space, Blackwell Publications, 1991.
  37. ________ . Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday Life, Translated by Stuart Elden and Gerald Moore, London ; New York: Continuum, 2004.
  38. Madanipour, Ali. Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into Socio-Spatial Space, John Willey and Sons Limited, 1996.
  39. Massey, Doreen. For Space, SAGE Publications Inc, 2005.
  40. Newton, Isaac. Philosophical Writings, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  41. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. John Wiley Inc, 2005.
  42. ________ . “The Architecture of the Seven Senses”, in Holl et al. (eds.), Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture , William Stout Publishers, 2006.
  43. Perez-Gomez, Alberto. “The Space of Architecture: Meaning as Presence and Representation”, in Holl et al. (eds.), Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture , William Stout Publishers, 2006.
  44. Petrescu, Doina. Altering Practices: Feminist Politics and Poetics of Space. Routledge, 2007.
  45. Plato. Timaeus and Critias, trans. Robin Waterfield, Oxford University Press, 2008.
  46. Picon, Antoine. “Architecture and the Virtual: Towards a New Materiality”, in A. Krista Sykes (ed.), Constructing a New Agenda: Architectural Theory 1993- 2009, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010, pp. 268- 290
  47. Rapoport, Amos. Human Aspects of Urban Form: Towards a Man-Environment Approach to Urban Form and Design, New York: Pergamon, 1977.
  48. Relph, Edward. Place and Placelessness. Pion Limited, 1976.
  49. Soja, Edward W. Thirdspace, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996.
  50. Sykes, A. krista. Constructing a New Agenda- Architectural Theory 1993-2009, Princton Architectural Press, 2010.
  51. Thrift, Nigel & Jon May. Timespace:Geographies of Temporality, Routledge, 2001.
  52. Till, Jeremy. Architecture Depends, The MIT Press, 2009.
  53. Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape, Berg Publishers, 1997.
  54. Tschumi, Bernard. “The Architectural Paradox”, in Hays, K. Michael (ed.), Architecture Theory since 1968, 1975, p. 214-230
  55. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Segmented Worlds and Self: Group Life and Individual Consciousness, University of Minnesota Press, 1982.
  56. Zevi, Bruno. Architecture as Space: How to Look at Architecture, Edited by Joseph A Barry, Horizon Press, 1957.