The Health Dimension of Urban Design

Document Type : مقاله کوتاه


PhD Candidate, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University


The growing awareness on the impact of man-made environments on human health and welfare has drawn attention to planning measures which contribute to creating a healthy environment. This paper first reviews the health and environment concepts based on medical and planning theories, respectively. Then the Sustainable Place Model is used as a conceptual basis for determining those functional, physical, cognitive and ecological features, which affect diverse health dimensions. Accordingly, a causation diagram is developed to include urban feature and health dimensions. It is shown that in addition to conventional socioeconomic dimensions, health has a spatial dimension, while planning also has a health dimension.

  1. منابع و مآخذ
  2. حکیمیان، پانته آ. راهنماى طراحى شهرى معطوف به ارتقاى سلامت انسان. پایان نامة کارشناسى ارشد طراحى شهرى. استاد راهنما: کورش گلکار. تهران: دانشگاه شهید بهشتى، دانشکدة معمارى و شهرسازى، بهمن 1386.
  3. سیارى، على اکبر. « سیماى سلامت در جهان و ایران» . درکتاب جامع بهداشت عمومى. ویرایش سوم. تهران: حوزة معاونت پژوهشى بهداشت. وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکى، 1387
  4. گلکار، کورش. « مؤلفه هاى سازندة کیفیت طراحى شهرى» در صفه، ش 32 (بهار و تابستان 1380)، ص 39-65.
  5. لنگ، جان. آفرینش نظریة معمارى: نقش علوم رفتارى در طراحى محیط. ترجمة علیرضا عینى فر. تهران: دانشگاه تهران، 1381.
  6. ------. طراحى شهرى گونه شناسى رویه ها و طرح ها. ترجمة سید حسین بحرینى. دانشگاه تهران، 1386.
  7. Barton, H. & C. Tsourou. Healthy Urban Planning. London & New York: Spon Press, 2000.
  8. Berman, M. A. “The Transportation Effects of Neo_ traditional Development”. in Journal of Planing Literature, 10 (4) (1996), pp. 347-363.
  9. Carmona, M. & T. Heath & T. Oc & S. Tiesdell. Public Places and Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2003.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Neighborhood Safety and the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity _ Selected States”. in Mor Mortal Wkly Rep 1999, 48(7), pp.143-146.
  11. Ewing, R. & T. Schmid & R. Killingsworth & A. Zlot & S. Raudenbush. “Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity”. in Am J Health Promotion, 18(1) (2003), pp. 47-57.
  12. Frank, L. D. & M. A. Anderson & T. L. Schmid. “Obesity Relationships with Community Design, Physical Activity and Time Spent in Cars”. in American J of Preventive Medicine, 27(2) (2004), pp. 87‐96.
  13. Gesler, W. and R. Kearns. Culture/ Place/ Health. London & New York: Routledge, 2002.
  14. Handy S. & M. Boarnet & R. Ewing & R. Killingsworth. “How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity: Views from Urban Planning”. in Am J Prev Med, 23(2S) (2002), pp. 64-73.
  15. Hoehner, C. & L. Brennan & R. Brownson & S. Handy and R. Killingsworth. “Opportunities for Integrating Public Health and Urban Planning Approaches to Promote Active Community Environments”. in American J of Health Promotion, 18(1) (2003), pp. 14-20.
  16. Humpel, N. & N. Owen & E. Leslie. “Environmental Factors Associated With Adults’ Participation in Physical Activity”. A Review in Am J Prev Med., 22(3) (Apr 2002), pp. 188- 199.
  17. Jackson, J. and C. Kochtitzky. Creating A Healthy Environment. Washington DC: Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse Monograph Series, 2001.
  18. Jackson, L. E. “The Relationship of Urban Design to Human Health and Condition”. in Landscape ans Urban Planning, Ni 64 (2003), pp. 191-200.
  19. Jackson, R. J. What Olmsted knew. Western City, March 2001, in < articles-detail-print.asp?Main_ID=565>, visited in Nov 2008.
  20. Kaplan, R. & S. Kaplan & R. L. Ryan. With People in Mind: Design and Management of Everyday Nature. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998.
  21. Killingsworth, R. & J. Earp & R. Moore. “Supporting Health Through Design: Challenges and Opportunities”. In American J of Health Promotion, 18(1) (2003), pp. 1-2.
  22. King, A. C. & C. Castro & S. Wilcox & A. A. Eyler & J. F. Sallis & R. C. Brownson. “Personal and Environmental Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity Among Different Racialethnic Groups of U. S. Middle_ aged and Older_ aged Women“. in Health Psych, 19(4) (2000), pp. 354-364.
  23. Kuo, F. E. & W. C. Sullivan & R. L. Coley, and L. Brunson, “Fertile Ground for Community: Inner-City Neighborhood Common Spaces”. in American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(6) (1998), pp. 823-851.
  24. Kuo, F. E. and W. C. Sullivan. “Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime?”. in Sage J. Environment and Behavior, 33(3) (2001), pp. 343-367.
  25. Kuo, F. E. and W. C. Sullivan. “Aggression and Violence in the Inner City: Effects of Environment via Mental Fatigue“. In Sage J. Environment and Behavior, 33(4) (2001), pp.543-571. Llewelyn-Davies. Urban Design Compendium. London: English Partnerships/ Housing Corporation, 2000.
  26. Lynch, K. The Image of the City. Cambridge Mass: MIT Press, 1960.
  27. Ny, E. Designing High-density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability. London: Earthscan, 2010.
  28. Saelens, B. & J. Sallis, and L. Frank. “Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling”. Findings from the Transportation in Urban Design and Planning Literatures, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25(2) (2003), pp. 80‐91.
  29. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for Sustainable Development Agenda 21. SecI, Chp6: Protecting & Promoting Human Health , 1992. in < esa/dsd/agenda21/res_agenda21_06.shtml> visited in April 2011.
  30. WHO. “Constitution of the World Health Organization: Definition of Health in Basic Documents”. 45th ed. Supplement Oct 2006, 1948.
  31. ________ . “Regional Office for Europe, Health 21: An Introduction to the Health for all Policy Framework for the WHO European Region”. in European Health for All Series, no. 5 (1998).
  32. ________ . “Regional Office for Europe, Community Participation in Local Health and Sustainable Development”. in European Sustainable Development and Health, Series 4, 1999.
  33. ________ . Global Info Base, Mortality, Iran Statistics for 2002. In < &Group1=RBTCntyByRg&DDLCntyByRg=EMR&DDLCntyNa me=1003&DDLYear=2004&TextBoxImgName=go>, visited in April 2011
  34. ________ . Working for Health: An Introduction to WHO, 2007. In <> visited in Nov 2008
  35. ________ . Regional Office for Europe, “Phase V (2009- 2013) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network“. In Goals & Requirements, 2009.